Watching the patient throughout and monitoring their reactions to treatment is really important. As well as this particular signs can be watched and monitored throughout.
- 12-16 respirations per minute.
- Normal and symmetrical chest movements.
- Listening to breathing sounds:
- Wheezing: lower airway obstruction
- Crackling: secretions accumulation
- Gurgling: fluid in oropharynx
- Snoring: upper airway obstruction
- Pale: prone to faint / low BP.
- Red: raised BP.
- Blue: hypoxia
- Grey: MI
- Pulse: 60-100 bpm normal range. Over 100 bpm is considered tachycardia in adults.
- BP: Hypertension (over 140/90 mmHg); Hypotension (under 90/60 mmHg).
- Pulse oximetry: 90-65% (normal readings); 80-90% (consider administration of O2 and continuous monitoring); under 80% (requires ventilatory support).
Author: Amelia Reed
Last Update: 05/05/2015